The CLDF Ontology

Namespace:
http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#
Version info:
http://cldf.clld.org/v1.1.1 (supersedes http://cldf.clld.org/v1.1)

Modules

Generic

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#Generic

A generic CLDF dataset; i.e. a set of cross-linguistic data which does not fit any of the established CLDF modules.

Wordlist

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#Wordlist

A dataset according to the CLDF Wordlist specification

Dictionary

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#Dictionary

A dataset according to the CLDF Dictionary specification

StructureDataset

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#StructureDataset

A dataset according to the CLDF Structure Dataset specification

ParallelText

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#ParallelText

A dataset according to the CLDF Parallel Text specification

Components

ValueTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#ValueTable

The table of value assignments of a CLDF Structure Dataset
csvw:name:
"ValueTable"
csvw:url:
"values.csv"

CodeTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#CodeTable

The Code Table lists valid values for categorical parameters, thus enabling validity checks and providing a place for additional information about codes such as a source.
csvw:name:
"CodeTable"
csvw:url:
"codes.csv"

ExampleTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#ExampleTable

The table of examples provided with a CLDF dataset
csvw:name:
"ExampleTable"
csvw:url:
"examples.csv"

EntryTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#EntryTable

The table of entries of a CLDF Dictionary
csvw:name:
"EntryTable"
csvw:url:
"entries.csv"

SenseTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#SenseTable

The table of senses of a CLDF Dictionary
csvw:name:
"SenseTable"
csvw:url:
"senses.csv"

FormTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#FormTable

The table of forms of a CLDF Wordlist
csvw:name:
"FormTable"
csvw:url:
"forms.csv"

BorrowingTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#BorrowingTable

The Borrowing Table stores information about borrowings or loanwords by linking two rows in the Form Table as associative entity where additional information about the particular case of borrowing can be provided.

csvw:name:
"BorrowingTable"
csvw:url:
"borrowings.csv"

CognateTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#CognateTable

The table of cognate judgements accompanying a CLDF Wordlist. If the only thing we know about cognate sets is the set of members, a Cognate Table can be used without a corresponding Cognateset Table, otherwise it will become the associative table between Form Table and Cognateset Table.

csvw:name:
"CognateTable"
csvw:url:
"cognates.csv"

CognatesetTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#CognatesetTable

A table holding additional data about cognate sets.
csvw:name:
"CognatesetTable"
csvw:url:
"cognatesets.csv"

LanguageTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#LanguageTable

The table of languages provided with a CLDF dataset
csvw:name:
"LanguageTable"
csvw:url:
"languages.csv"

ParameterTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#ParameterTable

The table of parameters available in a CLDF dataset
csvw:name:
"ParameterTable"
csvw:url:
"parameters.csv"

MediaTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#MediaTable

The table of media resources linked from objects in a CLDF dataset

ContributionTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#ContributionTable

The table of contributions - i.e. citeable units - in a CLDF dataset
csvw:name:
"ContributionTable"
csvw:url:
"contributions.csv"
dc:hasVersion:
http://cldf.clld.org/v1.1

FunctionalEquivalentTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#FunctionalEquivalentTable

A table to specify which parts of strings are functionally equivalent. This is typically used to parallel texts (i.e. expressions of the same content in different languages) However, it can be used in general to annotated that two expression from different languages are functionally equivalent (but not necessarily cognate)
csvw:name:
"FunctionalEquivalentTable"
csvw:url:
"functionalEquivalents.csv"

FunctionalEquivalentsetTable

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#FunctionalEquivalentsetTable

The table to list all sets of functional equivalents from a "http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#FunctionalEquivalentTable" and adding descriptions for these sets
csvw:name:
"FunctionalEquivalentsetTable"
csvw:url:
"functionalEquivalentsets.csv"

Properties

ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#id

A unique identifier for a row in a table.

To allow usage of identifiers as path components of URLs IDs must only contain alphanumeric characters, underscore and hyphen.

Source

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#source

List of source specifications, of the form <source_ID>[], e.g. http://glottolog.org/resource/reference/id/318814[34], or meier2015[3-12] where meier2015 is a citation key in the accompanying BibTeX file.

Comment

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#comment

A human-readable comment on a resource, providing additional context.

ISO639P3code

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#iso639P3code

An ISO 639-3 language code, i.e. a three-letter code denoting a valid ISO 639-3 language or macrolanguage.

Glottocode

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#glottocode

A Glottolog code denoting a languoid.

csvw:name:
"Glottocode"
csvw:datatype:
{"base": "string", "format": "[a-z0-9]{4}[1-9][0-9]{3}"}
csvw:valueUrl:
"http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/{glottocode}"
rdfs:seeAlso:
http://glottolog.org
rdfs:subPropertyOf:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/identifier

Macroarea

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#macroarea

A macroarea as defined by Glottolog.

Latitude

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#latitude

A latitude in the WGS 84 standard coordinate system, specified as decimal number of degrees.

csvw:name:
"Latitude"
csvw:datatype:
{"base": "decimal", "minimum": -90, "maximum": 90}
rdfs:subPropertyOf:
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#lat

Longitude

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#longitude

A longitude in the WGS 84 standard coordinate system, specified as decimal number of degrees.

csvw:name:
"Longitude"
csvw:datatype:
{"base": "decimal", "minimum": -180, "maximum": 180}
rdfs:subPropertyOf:
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#long

Media_Type

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#mediaType

A media type (also known as a Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions or MIME type) as defined by IETF's RFC 6838.

Download_URL

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#downloadUrl

URL where a media resource is available directly, typically through HTTP, but other schemes such as file: (interpreted relative to the metadata location) or data: are permissible as well.

Primary_Text

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#primaryText

The primary text of an example.

Analyzed_Word

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#analyzedWord

The morpheme-pattern analysis of a word in an example.

Gloss

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#gloss

A gloss corresponding to the morpheme-pattern analysis of a word in an example.

Translated_Text

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#translatedText

The translated text of an example.

Headword

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#headword

The headword of a dictionary entry.

Part_Of_Speech

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#partOfSpeech

The part-of-speech of dictionary entry.

Value

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#value

The value (a.k.a. datapoint or measurement) of a language for a structural feature.

For features with a limited, discrete set of valid values (a.k.a. categorical variables) it is recommended to relate items of a ValueTable to the respective code in the CodeTable.

Alignment

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#alignment

An alignment represents segments which are grouped into a common cognate set as a matrix in which cognate segments are placed in the same column while gap characters are introduced in those sound sequences missing a certain counterpart.

Segment_Slice

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#segmentSlice

List of segment indices or segment ranges forming the target of a partial cognacy judgement.

dc:extent:
multivalued
csvw:name:
"Segment_Slice"
csvw:datatype:
{"base": "string", "format": "\\d+(:\\d+)?"}
csvw:separator:
" "

Form

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#form

A lexical unit is any collection of word forms corresponding to a certain meaning which can be found in comparative datasets.

Ideally, a lexical unit would just present itself as one single form. However, in practice, scholars often list speech variants and at times even non-cognate alternatives for their preferred form.

Motivation_Structure

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#motivationStructure

The motivation structure of a word form gives glosses for each of its morphemes. In this it is similar to an instance of interlinear glossed text which describes the underlying semantic motivation for a given word form.

As an example, consider Chinese shùpí "bark (of a tree)" which is a compound consisting of shù "tree" and "skin", and whose motivation structure could be rendered as tree bark.

Prosodic_Structure

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#prosodicStructure

The prosodic structure of a word form labels similar prosodic contexts which may recur even within the same word. Prosodic structures for a given language may have an underlying template that describes which syllables are possible. In Chinese dialects, for example, one could describe the basic template of most syllables as consisting of initial, medial, nucleus, coda, and tone, of which the nucleus and the tone as a suprasegmental element are usually the only required elements.

Root

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#root

The root of a word form is an abstract basic unit from which several stems can be derived.

Stem

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#stem

A stem is a concrete word form in a language which has been derived as such from a given root.

Segments

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#segments

A list of segments (aka a sound sequence) is understood as the strict segmental representation of a form unit of a language, which is usually given in phonetic transcription. Suprasegmental elements, like tone or accent, of sound sequences are usually represented in a sequential form, although they are usually co-articulated along with the segmental elements of a sound sequence. Alternatively, suprasegmental aspects could also be represented as part of the prosodic structure of a word form.

Reference Properties

Language_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#languageReference

An identifier referencing a language either

  • by providing a foreign key into the LanguageTable or
  • by using a known encoding scheme.

Meta_Language_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#metaLanguageReference

An identifier referencing the meta language - e.g. of the translation of an example - either

  • by providing a foreign key into the LanguageTable or
  • by using a known encoding scheme.

Parameter_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#parameterReference

An identifier referencing a parameter either

  • by providing a foreign key into the ParameterTable or
  • by using a known encoding scheme.

Code_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#codeReference

An identifier referencing a code (aka category) description by providing a foreign key into the CodeTable.

Example_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#exampleReference

An identifier referencing an example by providing a foreign key into the ExampleTable.

Entry_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#entryReference

An identifier referencing a dictionary entry by providing a foreign key into the EntryTable.

Form_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#formReference

An identifier referencing a form by providing a foreign key into the FormTable.

Source_Form_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#sourceFormReference

An identifier referencing the source form of a loanword by providing a foreign key into the FormTable.

Target_Form_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#targetFormReference

An identifier referencing a loanword by providing a foreign key into the FormTable.

Cognateset_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#cognatesetReference

An identifier referencing a cognateset either

  • by providing a foreign key into the CognatesetTable or
  • by using a known encoding scheme.

Media_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#mediaReference

An identifier referencing a media resource by providing a foreign key into the MediaTable

Contribution_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#contributionReference

An identifier referencing a contribution by providing a foreign key into the ContributionTable

FunctionalEquivalentset_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#functionalEquivalentsetReference

A functional equivalent set is a group of strings from different languages that express similar function. This is an identifier referencing a cognateset either

  • by providing a foreign key into the FunctionalEquivalentsetTable or
  • by using a known encoding scheme.

Concepticon_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#concepticonReference

A concept set groups a number of concept labels which are used in different questionnaires and were judged to denote the same concept despite potential differences among the concrete concept labels (be it their spelling, or the language in which they were originally created).
csvw:name:
"Concepticon_ID"
csvw:datatype:
{"base": "string", "format": "[0-9]+"}
csvw:valueUrl:
"http://concepticon.clld.org/parameters/{Concepticon_ID}"
rdfs:range:
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal
dc:source:
List2016a
rdfs:seeAlso:
http://concepticon.clld.org

CLTS_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#cltsReference

References a sound in the Cross-Linguistic Transcription Systems database. Suitable to mark parameters as phonemes, and consequently values as elements of phoneme inventories. E.g. voiced_bilabial_nasal_consonant.

To mark sounds that can not be mapped to any sound defined in the current CLTS version, the ID "NA", corresponding to the "unknown" sound https://clts.clld.org/parameters/NA should be used.

GBIF_ID

http://cldf.clld.org/v1.0/terms.rdf#gbifReference

References a taxonomic unit in GBIF's Backbone Taxonomy. Can be used in for example in a ParameterTable to mark a lexical concept as biological species. E.g. 5219404.